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气候变暖导致麦蚜暴发为害机制获揭示

[日期:2022-04-08]   来源:广西昆虫馆  作者:广西昆虫馆   阅读:382次[字体: ]

Effects of field simulated warming on feeding behavior of Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) and host defense systems

Wang, Yi; Yan, Jia; Sun, Jingrui; Shi, Wangpeng; Harwood, James D.; Monticelli, Lucie S.; Tan, Xiaoling; Chen, Julian

       近日,中国农业科学院植物保护研究所粮食作物害虫监测与控制创新团队通过长期在冬小麦主产区麦田架设红外辐射升温设备,系统模拟气候变暖对麦蚜种群动态和取食行为的影响,并利用转录组学系统分析了小麦抗性途径的相关基因和防御酶的表达和活性,揭示了麦田增温模拟气候变暖导致麦蚜暴发为害机制。相关研究在线发表在《普通昆虫学》(Entomologia Generalis)上。

       据副研究员谭晓玲介绍,全球气候日趋变暖,会影响农业生态系统植物生理抗性和植食性昆虫的取食行为,从而诱发植食性昆虫大爆发,严重影响作物产量。该团队多年来围绕气候变暖下的小麦害虫成灾机制开展研究,通过在冬小麦主产区(河北廊坊、河南原阳和湖北武汉等关键地区)的麦田架设红外辐射升温设备模拟温度升高,发现温度精准升高2℃,麦蚜的寄生性天敌的寄生率明显降低,麦蚜的发生量明显增加。然而,温度升高对于麦蚜的暴发除了受天敌影响外,是否也受到植物生理抗性等的影响,其中的机制并不清楚。

       该研究进一步探究麦田升温条件下小麦转录组结果,分析了小麦水杨酸和茉莉酸防御信号途径相关防御酶和防御基因的活性及表达情况。研究发现,通过田间自然精准模拟温度升高,小麦的水杨酸和茉莉酸抗性途径的相关基因和防御酶苯丙氨酸解胺酶,β-1,3-葡聚糖酶和多酚氧化酶的表达和活性明显受到抑制,从而导致小麦抗性降低,进而促进麦蚜的取食和种群增长。

       研究结果为未来气候变化下的小麦主要害虫成灾趋势及防控提供了理论依据。该研究得到了国家自然科学基金、国家重点研发计划、中国农科院科技创新工程等项目的资助。

来源:中国科学报 李晨

Abstract

Climate warming affects crop phenology, physiology and biochemistry in agricultural ecosystems and has cascading effects on the performance and abundance of herbivorous insect pests. In this study, a field-simulated warming experiment was conducted using MSR-2420 infrared radiation lamps to assess its effects on the population size and feeding behavior of Sitobion avenae (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Additionally, the activity of the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) pathway-related enzymes and their gene expressions in wheat were recorded. Results revealed the population of S. avenae significantly increased in the warming treatment and significantly prolonged the average duration of the E1 and E2 waves of S. avenae. Enzymatic assays showed the activities of phenylalaninammo-nia lyase (PAL) and beta-1,3-glucanase (β-1,3-GA), involved in the SA pathway, and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), involved in the JA pathway, decreased following exposure to elevated warming whereas the activity of lipoxygenase (LOX), involved in the JA pathway, increased. The expression of PAL, beta-1,3-GA, involved in the SA pathway, and LOX and PPO, involved in the JA pathway, were similar to the changes in enzyme activity. Results indicated that S. avenae population increase was positively correlated with its feeding behavior and fitness, and these were correlated with decreasing wheat resistance through the SA and JA signaling pathways.

DOI:doi.org/10.1127/entomologia/2021/1271

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